5 VISIBILITY & MOVEMENT
All your friendly units are visible, but enemy units are not always visible. Enemy units do not become visible until they are within a certain visibility range from friendly units. The visibility range is calculated from a base visibility range (set in the battle data file), and adjusted based on the terrain occupied by both the friendly unit and the enemy unit. If your unit occupies a mountain or hill it has increased ability to see enemy units; while occupying a forest or swamp, it has decreased ability to see enemy units. If the enemy is in a forest, he is much more difficult to see, and your unit must be closer. Enemies that move into forests may disappear from view. The base visibility range may be altered (see Game Parameters section).
When one of your units is ready to move, it will be highlighted and a short tone will sound. At that point, you have several command options as described in the paragraphs below. If the unit is entrenched, you will be prompted to confirm that you want it to move. If you do not confirm the move, the unit automatically is Rested.
5.3 Controlling Diagonal Moves
Diagonal movement is supported in this game, using the numeric key pad, with NUMLOCK turned OFF, as shown below:
| 7 | 8 | 9 |
Move UP & LEFT —–> | | <—– Move UP & RIGHT
| Home | | PgUp |
| 4 | 5 | 6 |
Move LEFT ——-> | | <—– Move RIGHT
| | | |
| 1 | 2 | 3 |
Move DOWN & LEFT —> | | <—– Move DOWN & RIGHT
| End | | PgDn |
Note that this scheme is required because the map is hex-based. The game will respond to the Up or Down moves (either on the numeric keypad, or the “inverted T” arrows), but since there are no directly up or down moves on the map, it must convert them to a diagonal move, which is done on a 50%-50% random basis, either left or right.
TO BE ABLE TO CONTROL THE EAST-WEST DIRECTION OF NORTH-SOUTH MOVEMENT, YOU MUST USE THE NUMERIC KEYPAD.
5.4 Single Hex Movement
You may move the unit to an adjacent unoccupied hex by using the appropriate arrow key (numeric key pad). Since the unit may not move directly up or down on the hexagonal map, the ‘up’ or ‘down’ keys are reinterpreted as diagonal ‘up’ or ‘down’ moves. You cannot control whether these reinterpreted diagonal moves are right or left (done randomly), so you should generally avoid using the ‘up’ and ‘down’ keys for single hex movement.
If you attempt to move into a prohibited hex (occupied or water), a tone will sound. There is no movement penalty. After the unit moves, it may reveal enemy units that were previously hidden.
Any units that were entrenched at the beginning of the scenario (using the scenario editor) may be reluctant to move from the safety of their trenches. Occasionally such units will not respond to move orders (a message to that effect is displayed). Units that are low on morale or that are poorly led are more likely to do this.
5.5 Move-to-Location Orders
Single hex movement may be tedious. You may wish to give your units orders to move to a particular location instead. To do this, press ‘M’ when the unit is highlighted and a cursor will appear on top of the unit. Move this cursor with the arrow keys to the desired destination, and press ‘Enter’. When the “move to” order is issued, the destination will be indicated by a small white circle and a line will connect the unit with its intended target. On its next turn, your unit will then begin to move to the selected destination, following the most direct path. (It will not necessarily follow the same path you used in moving the cursor to the destination). If it is blocked by a friendly unit or by prohibited terrain (water or edge of map screen), or if the unit is attacked in any way, the movement order will be cancelled, and the unit will wait for new instructions.
Artillery units must be LIMBERED (or the limber option must
be turned off) to respond to move-to-location orders. Orders
can be issued to unlimbered artillery, but the orders are
ignored, and the unit will not move. This applies to the
special group move-to-location orders issued by General
units as well. Emplaced artillery can not receive
For destinations that are far away, moving the cursor may be
speeded by holding down ‘Shift’ before pressing the desired
arrow key. The cursor will then move to the indicated map
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edge. Pressing the ‘5’ key at the center of the key pad will
center the cursor on the screen.
Once a unit has reached its assigned destination, it will
flash and a tone will sound, along with a message that it
has arrived at its destination. At that point its orders are
cancelled, and it will await further instructions.
While units are ‘under orders’ to move you will not normally
be able to access them, even if you change your mind about
what they should do. The only way you can overcome this is
having one of your General units cancel the unit orders
using the ‘X’ command. (See ‘hot keys’ section). This is not
100% effective (due to communication breakdowns and stubborn
subordinate officers). Even if the orders are actually
cancelled, morale and leadership may be reduced in units
affected due to the conflicts between unit commanders and
General unit. Thus, the ‘cancel orders’ option should be
used only as needed to free units that have become locked in
Since the General units are your only means to cancel
orders, you should usually not give them movement orders.
That way, you will be able to access them more frequently.
Though your units will normally wait for your commands, on
occasion they will decide to move on their own initiative
(generally in an attempt to engage an enemy unit which they
have sighted). Such units issue their own orders to move to
the chosen destination. You can choose to adjust the
tendency of your troops to do act on their own by setting
the ‘Reliability’ level in the ‘Game Parameters’ menu.
5.6 Group Move-to-Location Orders
A General unit ONLY may order a group of nearby units to
move to a destination. To activate this feature, press F6
when a General unit is highlighted and awaiting your
command. A cursor will appear as described in the
Move-to-Location option above. Move the cursor to the
target destination and press ‘Enter’. The number of nearby
units that plan to obey the order is given in the screen
message. Units must be no further away than half the
visibility limit to receive the order. Likewise, in order to
obey the order, the unit must not be ‘under orders’. Note
that the General unit himself does not go ‘under orders’,
only those OTHER UNITS that comply with his orders.
Infantry units ONLY may double their speed for short
distances on OPEN TERRAIN OR ROADS only with a ‘C’ (CHARGE)
command. Units in ‘charge’ mode will be shown with a
distinctive icon. While in ‘charge’ mode they will move
twice as fast as normal infantry.
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If charging units become involved in combat, or are attacked
by artillery, or move into any other than open or roads
terrain, they will switch out of ‘charge’ mode. In addition,
each time a unit in ‘charge’ mode is moved, there is a
chance that the unit will simply become too tired to
continue the charge. Units that are moved until they are too
tired will be delayed in their action for a time while they
The ‘charge’ option affects both movement and combat
(increases ‘shock’ effect of attacks). Units with too low
morale will not be able to charge at all until their morale
Note that switching to ‘charge’ mode requires one turn. Then
the unit may be moved a single hex or given orders.
You may not wish to move a unit on its turn. By pressing the
space bar you can skip the unit and allow it to rest for a
few turns. If the unit’s morale is low, it will improve
slightly after resting.
To avoid having to repeatedly issue a ‘Rest’ order, an
option is provided whereby units may ‘Wait’. Press ‘W’ when
the unit has its turn. The unit icon will change to a solid
colored block. The unit will become inactive, automatically
resting to regain morale. The unit will reactivate if
attacked (either melee or cannonade). Waiting units suffer
no penalty if attacked.
In addition, you may activate the WAITing unit at any time
another friendly unit has a turn. Press ‘I’ for the
intelligence cursor and pass it over the inactive unit you
wish to wake. The icon will change to the normal icon. Now
press ‘esc’ and the first unit can take whatever action you
Normally, units cannot move onto other friendly units
(stack). However, units can now be stacked under certain
(a) TOTAL unit strength resulting from stacking must be
stack limit or less (stack limit default is 500)
(b) If dissimilar units are stacked, an INFANTRY unit
will result, unless one of the units is a
GENERAL, in which case a GENERAL will result
The leadership value for the stacked unit will usually be the
higher of the two units that are being combined. An exception is
if one of the units is a General and the other is not; in that
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case, the resulting leadership value is always that of the
Morale will generally INCREASE slightly if LIKE units are
stacked. It will generally DECREASE slightly if UNLIKE units are
Stacking results in a time delay for the unit to get reorganized.
The reorganization delay is reduced if leadership is high.
5.11 ‘Join’ Command to Check Stacking Options
The ‘J’ (for ‘JOIN’) option allows a unit to check for other
units it might combine with, given the current stack limit. All
units which the unit in question could join will be displayed (if
any), while all other friendly units will temporarily be blanked